Template Driver

Resource Definitions using the Template Driver

This section contains example Resource Definitions using the Template Driver.

Add sidecar

Add a sidecar to workloads using the workload resource

The workload Resource Type can be used to make updates to resources before they are deployed into the cluster. In this example, a Resource Definition implementing the workload Resource Type is used to inject the Open Telemetry agent as a sidecar into every workload. In addition to adding the sidecar, it also adds an environment variable called OTEL_EXPORTER_OTLP_ENDPOINT to each container running in the workload.


otel-sidecar.yaml(view on GitHub):

apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: otel-sidecar
entity:
  name: otel-sidecar
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        outputs: |
          {{- /*
              The "update" output is passed into the corresponding "update" output of the "workload" Resource Type.
          */ -}}
          update:
            {{- /*
              Add the variable OTEL_EXPORTER_OTLP_ENDPOINT to all containers
            */ -}}
            {{- range $containerId, $value := .resource.spec.containers }}
            - op: add
              path: /spec/containers/{{ $containerId }}/variables/OTEL_EXPORTER_OTLP_ENDPOINT
              value: http://localhost:4317
            {{- end }}
        manifests:
          sidecar.yaml:
            location: containers
            data: |
              {{- /*
                The Open Telemetry container as a sidecar in the workload
              */ -}}
              command:
                - "/otelcol"
                - "--config=/conf/otel-agent-config.yaml"
              image: otel/opentelemetry-collector:0.94.0
              name: otel-agent
              resources:
                limits:
                  cpu: 500m
                  memory: 500Mi
                requests:
                  cpu: 100m
                  memory: 100Mi
              ports:
              - containerPort: 55679 # ZPages endpoint.
              - containerPort: 4317 # Default OpenTelemetry receiver port.
              - containerPort: 8888  # Metrics.
              env:
                - name: GOMEMLIMIT
                  value: 400MiB
              volumeMounts:
              - name: otel-agent-config-vol
                mountPath: /conf
          sidecar-volume.yaml:
            location: volumes
            data: |
              {{- /*
                A volume that is used to surface the config file
              */ -}}
              configMap:
                name: otel-agent-conf-{{ .id }}
                items:
                  - key: otel-agent-config
                    path: otel-agent-config.yaml
              name: otel-agent-config-vol
          otel-config-map.yaml:
            location: namespace
            data: |
              {{- /*
                The config file for the Open Telemetry agent. Notice that it's name includes the GUResID
              */ -}}
              apiVersion: v1
              kind: ConfigMap
              metadata:
                name: otel-agent-conf-{{ .id }}
                labels:
                  app: opentelemetry
                  component: otel-agent-conf
              data:
                otel-agent-config: |
                  receivers:
                    otlp:
                      protocols:
                        grpc:
                          endpoint: localhost:4317
                        http:
                          endpoint: localhost:4318
                  exporters:
                    otlp:
                      endpoint: "otel-collector.default:4317"
                      tls:
                        insecure: true
                      sending_queue:
                        num_consumers: 4
                        queue_size: 100
                      retry_on_failure:
                        enabled: true
                  processors:
                    batch:
                    memory_limiter:
                      # 80% of maximum memory up to 2G
                      limit_mib: 400
                      # 25% of limit up to 2G
                      spike_limit_mib: 100
                      check_interval: 5s
                  extensions:
                    zpages: {}
                  service:
                    extensions: [zpages]
                    pipelines:
                      traces:
                        receivers: [otlp]
                        processors: [memory_limiter, batch]
                        exporters: [otlp]
  criteria: []

Affinity

This section contains example Resource Definitions using the Template Driver for the affinity of Kubernetes Pods.

  • affinity.yaml: Add affinity rules to the Workload. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.

affinity.yaml(view on GitHub):

# Add affinity rules to the Workload by adding a value to the manifest at .spec.affinity 
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: workload-affinity
entity:
  name: workload-affinity
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        outputs: |
          update:
          - op: add
            path: /spec/affinity
            value: 
              nodeAffinity:
                preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
                - weight: 1
                  preference:
                    matchExpressions:
                    - key: another-node-label-key
                      operator: In
                      values:
                      - another-node-label-value
  criteria: []

Labels

This section shows how to use the Template Driver for managing labels on Kubernetes objects.

While it is also possible to set labels via Score, the approach shown here shifts the management of labels down to the Platform, ensuring consistency and relieving developers of the task to repeat common labels for each Workload in the Score extension file.

  • config-labels.yaml: Resource Definition of type config which defines the value for a sample label at a central place.
  • custom-workload-with-dynamic-labels.yaml: Add dynamic labels to your Workload. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.
  • custom-namespace-with-dynamic-labels.yaml: Add dynamic labels to your Namespace. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.

config-labels.yaml(view on GitHub):

# This "config" type Resource Definition provides the value for the sample label
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: app-config
entity:
  name: app-config
  type: config
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        # Returns a sample output named "cost_center_id" to be used as a label
        outputs: |
          cost_center_id: my-example-id
  # Match the resource ID "app-config" so that it can be requested via that ID
  criteria:
    - res_id: app-config

custom-namespace-with-dynamic-labels.yaml(view on GitHub):

# This Resource Definition references the "config" resource to use its output as a label
# and adds another label taken from the Deployment context
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: custom-namespace-with-label
entity:
  name: custom-namespace-with-label
  type: k8s-namespace
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        init: |
          name: ${context.app.id}-${context.env.id}
        manifests: |-
          namespace.yaml:
            location: cluster
            data:
              apiVersion: v1
              kind: Namespace
              metadata:
                labels:
                  env_id: ${context.env.id}
                  cost_center_id: ${resources['config.default#app-config'].outputs.cost_center_id}
                name: {{ .init.name }}
        outputs: |
          namespace: {{ .init.name }}
  # Set matching criteria as required
  criteria:
    - {}

custom-workload-with-dynamic-labels.yaml(view on GitHub):

# This Resource Definition references the "config" resource to use its output as a label
# and adds another label taken from the Deployment context
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: custom-workload-with-label
entity:
  name: custom-workload-with-label
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        # Remove the /spec/service/labels part if there is no "service" in your Score file.
        outputs: |
          update:
            - op: add
              path: /spec/labels
              value:
                {{- range $key, $val := .resource.spec.labels }}
                {{ $key }}: {{ $val | quote }}
                {{- end }}
                env_id: ${context.env.id}
                cost_center_id: ${resources['config.default#app-config'].outputs.cost_center_id}
            - op: add
              path: /spec/service/labels
              value:
                {{- range $key, $val := .resource.spec.service.labels }}
                {{ $key }}: {{ $val | quote }}
                {{- end }}
                env_id: ${context.env.id}
                cost_center_id: ${resources['config.default#app-config'].outputs.cost_center_id}
  # Set matching criteria as required
  criteria:
    - {}

Namespace

This section contains example Resource Definitions using the Template Driver for managing Kubernetes namespaces.

  • custom-namespace.yaml: Create Kubernetes namespaces with your own custom naming scheme. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.
  • custom-namespace.tf: Create Kubernetes namespaces with your own custom naming scheme. This format is for use with the Humanitec Terraform provider.

custom-namespace.tf(view on GitHub):

resource "humanitec_resource_definition" "namespace" {
  id          = "custom-namespace"
  name        = "custom-namespace"
  type        = "k8s-namespace"
  driver_type = "humanitec/template"

  driver_inputs = {
    values_string = jsonencode({
      templates = {
        init      = "name: $${context.env.id}-$${context.app.id}"
        manifests = <<EOL
namespace.yaml:
  location: cluster
  data:
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Namespace
    metadata:
      labels:
        pod-security.kubernetes.io/enforce: restricted
      name: {{ .init.name }}
EOL
        outputs   = "namespace: {{ .init.name }}"
      }
    })
  }
}

resource "humanitec_resource_definition_criteria" "namespace" {
  resource_definition_id  = humanitec_resource_definition.namespace.id
  # ... add any matching criteria as required.
}

custom-namespace.yaml(view on GitHub):

apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: custom-namespace
entity:
  name: custom-namespace2
  type: k8s-namespace
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        # Use any combination of placeholders and characters to configure your naming scheme
        init: |
          name: ${context.env.id}-${context.app.id}
        manifests: |-
          namespace.yaml:
            location: cluster
            data:
              apiVersion: v1
              kind: Namespace
              metadata:
                labels:
                  pod-security.kubernetes.io/enforce: restricted
                name: {{ .init.name }}
        outputs: |
          namespace: {{ .init.name }}
  criteria:
    - {}

Security context

This section contains example Resource Definitions using the Template Driver for adding Security Context on Kubernetes Deployment.

  • custom-workload-with-security-context.yaml: Add Security Context to your Workload. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.
  • custom-workload-with-security-context.tf: Add Security Context to your Workload. This format is for use with the Humanitec Terraform provider.

custom-workload-with-security-context.tf(view on GitHub):

resource "humanitec_resource_definition" "workload" {
  driver_type = "humanitec/template"
  id          = "custom-workload"
  name        = "custom-workload"
  type        = "workload"

  driver_inputs = {
    values_string = jsonencode({
      templates = {
        init      = ""
        manifests = ""
        outputs   = <<EOL
update:
  - op: add
    path: /spec/securityContext
    value:
      fsGroup: 1000
      runAsGroup: 1000
      runAsNonRoot: true
      runAsUser: 1000
      seccompProfile:
        type: RuntimeDefault
  {{- range $containerId, $value := .resource.spec.containers }}
  - op: add
    path: /spec/containers/{{ $containerId }}/securityContext
    value:
      allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
      capabilities:
        drop:
          - ALL
      privileged: false
      readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
  {{- end }}
EOL
      }
    })
  }
}

resource "humanitec_resource_definition_criteria" "workload" {
  resource_definition_id = humanitec_resource_definition.workload.id
  # ... add any matching criteria as required.
}

custom-workload-with-security-context.yaml(view on GitHub):

apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: custom-workload
entity:
  name: custom-workload
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        outputs: |
          update:
            - op: add
              path: /spec/securityContext
              value:
                fsGroup: 1000
                runAsGroup: 1000
                runAsNonRoot: true
                runAsUser: 1000
                seccompProfile:
                  type: RuntimeDefault
            {{- range $containerId, $value := .resource.spec.containers }}
            - op: add
              path: /spec/containers/{{ $containerId }}/securityContext
              value:
                allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
                capabilities:
                  drop:
                    - ALL
                privileged: false
                readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            {{- end }}
  criteria:
    - {}

Tolerations

This section contains example Resource Definitions using the Template Driver for managing tolerations on your Pods.

  • tolerations.yaml: Add tolerations to the Workload. This format is for use with the Humanitec CLI.

tolerations.yaml(view on GitHub):

# Add tolerations to the Workload by adding a value to the manifest at .spec.tolerations 
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: workload-toleration
entity:
  name: workload-toleration
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        outputs: |
          update: 
          - op: add
            path: /spec/tolerations
            value:
            - key: "example-key"
              operator: "Exists"
              effect: "NoSchedule"
  criteria: []

Volumes static provisioning

This example will let participating Workloads share a common persistent storage service through the Kubernetes volumes system.

It is possible to use the Drivers volume-nfs or volume-pvc to create a PersistentVolume for your application. If you have special requirements for your PersistentVolume, you can also use the Template Driver to create it as shown here.

The example setup will perform static provisioning for a Kubernetes PersistentVolume of type nfs and a corresponding PersistentVolumeClaim. The volume points to an existing NFS server endpoint. The endpoint shown is an in-cluster NFS service which can be set up using this Kubernetes example. Modify the endpoint to use your own NFS server, or substitute the data completely for a different volume type.

flowchart TB
  subgraph pod1[Pod]
    direction TB
    subgraph container1[Container]
      volumeMount1(volumeMount\n/tmp/data):::codeComponent
    end
    volumeMount1 --> volume1(volume):::codeComponent
  end
  subgraph pod2[Pod]
    direction TB
    subgraph container2[Container]
      volumeMount2(volumeMount\n/tmp/data):::codeComponent
    end
    volumeMount2 --> volume2(volume):::codeComponent
  end
  pvc1(PersistentVolumeClaim) --> pv1(PersistentVolume)
  volume1 --> pvc1
  pvc2(PersistentVolumeClaim) --> pv2(PersistentVolume)
  volume2 --> pvc2
  nfsServer[NFS Server]
  pv1 --> nfsServer
  pv2 --> nfsServer

  classDef codeComponent font-family:Courier

To use the example, apply both Resource Definitions to your Organization and add the required matching criteria to both so they are matched to your target Deployments.

Note that this setup does not require any resource to be requested via Score. The implicit workload Resource, when matched to the Resource Definition of type workload of this example, will trigger the provisioning of the volume Resource through its own Resource reference.

Those files make up the example:

  • workload-volume-nfs.yaml: Resource Definition of type workload. It references a Resource of type volume through Resource References, thus adding such a Resource to the Resource Graph and effectively triggering the provisioning of that Resource. It uses the Resource outputs to set a label for a fictitious backup solution, and to add the PersistentVolumeClaim to the Workload container.
  • volume-nfs.yaml: Resource Definition of type volume. It creates the PersistentVolume and PersistentVolumeClaim manifests and adds the volumes element to the Workload’s Pod. The ID generated in the init section will be different for each active Resource, i.e. for each Workload, so that each Workload will get their own PersistentVolume and PersistentVolumeClaim objects created for them. Still, through the common NFS server endpoint, they will effectively share access to the data.

The resulting Resource Graph portion will look like this:

flowchart LR
  subgraph resource-graph[Resource Graph]
    direction TB
    W1((Workload)) --->|implicit reference| W2(Workload)
    W2 --->|"resource reference\n${resources.volume...}"| V1(Volume)
  end
  subgraph key [Key]
    VN((Virtual\nNodes))
    AN(Active\nResources)
  end
  resource-graph ~~~ key

volume-nfs.yaml(view on GitHub):

# Using the Template Driver for the static provisioning of
# a Kubernetes PersistentVolume and PersistentVolumeClaim combination,
# then adding the volume into the Pod of the Workload.
# The volumeMount in the container is defined in the "workload" type Resource Definition.
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: volume-nfs
entity:
  name: volume-nfs
  type: volume
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        init: |
          # Generate a unique id for each pv/pvc combination.
          # Every Workload will have a separate pv and pvc created for it,
          # but pointing to the same NFS server endpoint.
          volumeUid: {{ randNumeric 4 }}-{{ randNumeric 4 }}
          pvBaseName: pv-tmpl-
          pvcBaseName: pvc-tmpl-
          volBaseName: vol-tmpl-
        manifests:
          ####################################################################
          # This template creates the PersistentVolume in the target namespace
          # Modify the nfs server and path to address your NFS server
          ####################################################################
          app-pv-tmpl.yaml:
            location: namespace
            data: |
              apiVersion: v1
              kind: PersistentVolume
              metadata:
                name: {{ .init.pvBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}
              spec:
                capacity:
                  storage: 1Mi
                accessModes:
                  - ReadWriteMany
                nfs:
                  server: nfs-server.default.svc.cluster.local
                  path: "/"
                mountOptions:
                  - nfsvers=4.2
          
          #########################################################################
          # This template creates the PersistentVolumeClaim in the target namespace
          #########################################################################
          app-pvc-tmpl.yaml:
            location: namespace
            data: |
              apiVersion: v1
              kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
              metadata:
                name: {{ .init.pvcBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}
              spec:
                accessModes:
                  - ReadWriteMany
                storageClassName: ""
                resources:
                  requests:
                    storage: 1Mi
                volumeName: {{ .init.pvBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}

          ########################################################
          # This template creates the volume in the Workload's Pod
          ########################################################
          app-vol-tmpl.yaml:
            location: volumes
            data: |
              name: {{ .init.volBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                claimName: {{ .init.pvcBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}

        # Make the volume name and pvc name available for other Resources
        outputs: |
          volumeName: {{ .init.volBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}
          pvcName: {{ .init.pvcBaseName }}{{ .init.volumeUid }}

workload-volume-nfs.yaml(view on GitHub):

# This workload Resource Definition uses the output of the "volume" type Resource
# to add a label for a backup solution
# and to create the volumeMount for the container.
apiVersion: entity.humanitec.io/v1b1
kind: Definition
metadata:
  id: workload-volume-nfs
entity:
  name: workload-volume-nfs
  type: workload
  driver_type: humanitec/template
  driver_inputs:
    values:
      templates:
        init: |
          pvcName: ${resources.volume.outputs.pvcName}
          volumeName: ${resources.volume.outputs.volumeName}
        outputs: |
          update:
            - op: add
              path: /spec/annotations/backup.org-name.io
              value: {{ .init.pvcName }}
            {{- range $containerId, $value := .resource.spec.containers }}
            - op: add
              path: /spec/containers/{{ $containerId }}/volumeMounts
              value:
              - name: {{ $.init.volumeName }}
                mountPath: /tmp/data
            {{- end }}
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