MariaDB over SSH

This provisions a new MariaDB database in an existing MariaDB instance. The Driver will first connect to an SSH server acting as a bastion host and then port forward to the MariaDB instance. The SSH server must be accessible from Humanitec IPs and the MariaDB instance must be directly accessible from the SSH server.

Property Description
Resource type mariadb
Account type None



Name Type Description
host string The IP Address or hostname that the instance is available on.
port integer The port the instance is listening on.
append_host_to_user boolean [Optional] Azure Databases for Postgres and MariaDB require usernames to have @servername appended to them. Set this to true for the Driver to append this automatically. (See: Azure Database connection strings)
copy_from_name string [Optional] If provided, specifies the database in the same instance to copy data from.
ssh_host string Hostname or IP address of the SSH server.
ssh_port integer The port to connect to on the SSH server.
ssh_user string The username to use to connect to the SSH server.


Name Type Description
dbcredentials object An object holding username and password properties for the MariaDB superuser.


Configuring the SSH server

In order for the Driver to use the SSH server as a bastion host, the following needs to be configured:

  • The Humanitec Database Server Public Key must be added to the authorized_keys file on the server.
  • The user that is used for connecting on must have have permissions to perform a port forward.
  • The SSH server must be configured to allow port forwarding - typically via an entry in the configuration file similar to AllowTcpForwarding yes

The Humanitec Database Server Public Key is:

ssh-rsa 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 [email protected]

Automatic population of database

MariaDB does not provide any standard way of duplicating databases. Instead, the suggested approach is to “dump and restore” a database using tools such as mariadb-dump/mysqldump.

This Driver emulates a dump and restore of the database: for example, it serially copies data from the source database to the target database. It therefore suffers from limitations of dumping and restoring a database. The main issue is that if the source database is being written to, there are no guarantees about the data integrity in the resulting database. Consider a source database with 2 tables A and B:

  1. Table A is copied to the target database.
  2. New data is then written to Table A and Table B in the source database.
  3. Table B is copied from the source database to the target database.

The target database will now have the updated to table B but not table A.

This functionality should not be used for production databases or where data integrity must be guaranteed.


Set the following environment variables for the CLI and API commands:

Variable Example Description
HUMANITEC_TOKEN my-token The authentication token for accessing the Humanitec API.
HUMANITEC_ORG my-org-id The unique identifier for the organization in Humanitec.

Use the command below for the interface of your choice to create a fresh MariaDB database in an instance available at accessed via a bastion host on as the user example-ssh-user.

  1. Create a file defining the Resource Definition you want to create:
cat << EOF > dev-mariadb-ssh.yaml
kind: Definition
  id: dev-mariadb-ssh
  name: Dev MariaDB SSH
  type: mariadb
  driver_type: humanitec/mariadb-ssh
        username: root
        password: 53cr3t-P455w0rd
      port: 3306
      ssh_port: 22
      ssh_user: example-ssh-user
  - env_type: development
  1. Use the humctl create command to create the Resource Definition in the Organization defined by your configured context:
humctl create -f dev-mariadb-ssh.yaml
rm dev-mariadb-ssh.yaml

curl${HUMANITEC_ORG}/resources/defs \
  -X POST \
  -H "Authorization: Bearer ${HUMANITEC_TOKEN}" \
  -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --data-binary '
  "id": "dev-mariadb-ssh",
  "name": "Dev MariaDB SSH",
  "type": "mariadb",
  "criteria": [
      "env_type": "development"
  "driver_type": "humanitec/mariadb-ssh",
  "driver_inputs": {
    "values": {
      "host": "",
      "port": 3306,
      "ssh_host": "",
      "ssh_port": 22,
      "ssh_user": "example-ssh-user"
    "secrets": {
      "dbcredentials": {
        "username": "root",
        "password": "53cr3t-P455w0rd"

Unlike Google CloudSQL, most MariaDB implementations use a single shared Driver.


  • You must have a database instance/server running.
  • You must have a user defined on the instance for Workloads to use when connecting to the database.

Add a Resource Definition

  1. From the Resource Management screen, click Add resource definition.
  2. In the modal dialog click MariaDB.
  3. Next, select the mariadb-ssh Driver.
  4. Finally, provide the following information, then click Add MariaDB.
    1. In the ID field provide a unique ID for the Resource.
    2. Provide the user or role of the database.
    3. Provide the password for the database.
    4. Provide a privilege list to be applied to the user.
    5. Choose whether to have @servername appended to the username.
    6. Provide the database hostname and port.
    7. Enter the SSH hostname, port, and username.

Resource Matching

Now that the Resource is defined you will need to add matching criteria.

  1. Click on the relevant row in the Resource Definition table.
  2. Then switch to the Matching Criteria tab.
  3. Click + Add new Criteria.
  4. Configure the matching rules as needed.
  5. Click Save.